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Aduku Addae Table




Aduku Addae, born in 1959, is a Jamaican by birth and an internationalist freedom fighter by choice and conviction.  As a young boy he roamed the hills of his rural village, Bohemia, located at the southwestern tip of the "Garden Parish," St. Ann, dreaming about Maroons (the reputed ancestors of his paternal grandmother) and fighting many shadow (imaginary) battles against the British Army of colonial times. 

The ultimate "mental assassin" in his daydreams he never lost a single conflict to the enemy, the "Red Coats."  more bio

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The idea that the working class woman can choose what to do with her body is inconsistent with the fact that the body of the worker (man or woman) is both an instrument of production and a commodity.  The workers in the factories and offices are merely extensions of the equipment in these corporate environs, therefore, instruments of production.  Workers are even more dispensable than the equipment!  They are bought and sold on the labor market in much the same way as bread and cheese are bought and sold.  Hence, they are commodities.

The actions of the working people are determined not by choice but by necessity.  Necessity is the driving force behind the decisions that poor people make.  Rich women are pro-choice because in a practical sense they can make choices.  Workingwomen have to yield to necessity.  The feminist movement is interested in "rights" (read choices) and privileges, which are buttressed on consumerist notions.  The movement's organizational and agitational efforts are not directed to realize social equity. Feminism and the Criminallization of Masculinity 

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My father was a “comrade” to the bone and in his 70 years of life never wavered from that conviction up to his passing in 1997. He was born, lived and died a “PNP man” and an incorrigible Manley supporter.

Passion as strong as was my father’s belief in the People’s National Party (PNP) touches everyone that comes into contact with it. This passion affected us as children without exception. To this day my siblings remain faithful to the People’s National Party.

As intimated earlier, Manley was the Messiah, the Christ redeemer in my father’s household. As such, he exercised considerable influence over me during my formative years. For about 5 years, between 12 and 17 years of age, I ran around with the rest of the 'sheep' waving my fist in defiance and shouting "Power!" Manley's Legacy

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It must be pointed out that women are as anti-homosexual as men are. If this non-acceptance of homosexuality represents a phobia, a fear, then women fear homosexuals just as much as men do.  Extending the writers logic, women fear masculinization just as men fear feminization. So homophobia for women is masculinophobia (if I may coin a word) as it is femmephobia for men. Homophobia is both femmephobia and masculinophobia, not just the former as the writer asserts. The writer’s theorization produces a lopsided analysis that implicitly incorporates the fictive non-analytical notion that “homophobia” is a male affliction. So, even in this subtle manner, heterosexual men find themselves under attack.

In any event, it is absurd to say that people who are not pro-homosexual are homophobic. Most people simply find this conduct abhorrent and are not any more afraid of homosexuals than they are of heterosexuals (men and women) who are profligate.

Gay women are the ones, who evidently need to be fearful of the "repository of power," the punaany, for, finding themselves subordinate to other women, they are the ones who are conquered by it. The men in this drama, of course, have something more repulsive to fear the overpowering penis. Homophobia (read, in the biased language of the author of the Jamaica Gleaner articles, fear of the phallus) is the appropriate response. The DJs have properly identified this source of fear. The academician is wrong. It seems, though, that all these fears must be ascribed to homosexuals and not heterosexuals. Reflecting on Love Puny Bad

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Rhygin is the epitome of ghetto manhood.  "Single handedly and unaided, he had killed . . . armed men, themselves intent on his life." (It is the ultimate act of survival and this is the essence of life in the ghetto – survival).  In the mind of the ghetto youth this is a hero of legendary stature.  If the old rude boys had to invent or adopt (and adapt) heroic figures for their roles in the ghetto drama the new rude boys are able to find these in the folkloric tradition of the ghetto.  The drama now unfolds as ghetto theatre on the dancehall stage. 

Ninja Man is not Billy the Kid. He does not inhabit the Hollywood tale.  He is not walking in the blight of John Wayne’s shadow.  He is a dramatist, with a contemporary Jamaican voice, cast in the role of Rhygin.

Even as Rhygin was standing at the gates of eternity he was not afraid.  In fact "[h]e had to fight the laughter that rose up in him. . . . He realized with great astonishment that Babylon, with all their long guns, were afraid of him."

Ninja Man boasted of his arsenal of “long guns”. The implication is astounding.

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The ABCs of Class Struggle 

Aduku Addae Bio

Connie Responds to Aduku

Feminism and the Criminalization of Masculinity  

Freedom Ain't Come Yet!

Manley's Legacy 

Marxism Irrelevant 

On Aristide

Reflecting on Love Puny Bad 

The Sting Oracle  

The Struggle in Haiti 

Related files

Black Labor

Comments on Addae "ABCs"   

In-Dependence from Bondage

Lil Joe Table

John Maxwell Table 

Sexual Morality and Black Male Abandonment

Southern Needs

Toussaint Table

Unending War 

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Michael Manley (1924-1997) was Jamaica's fifth Prime Minister. He served two terms -- 1972-1980; 1989-1992. He became leader of the People's National Party (PNP) in 1969 at the death of  his father. Considered a man of the people, he often mingled among the people in causal dress. Though white, he maintained an amiable relationship with Jamaica's black majority. A socialist, he was a friend of Fidel Castro. His economic programs had mixed success.  Manley is also credited with initiating a culture of political violence by his party funding street gangs during  elections to ensure support and political success. The 1980s election was considered extremely corrupt.

Edward Seaga, leader of Jamaica's Labour Party, became the next prime Minister. The 1980 campaign left a 1,000 Jamaicans dead. Seaga also supported with troops Ronald Reagan's invasion of Grenada. Manley was returned to Prime Minister 1989, but retired in 1992 because of reasons of health. Percival James Patterson, then Deputy Prime Minister, succeeds Michael Manley as party leader and prime minister.

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P. J. Patterson, born 1935 at St Andrew, Jamaica, was elected to a fourth term in October 2002 as prime Minister of Jamaica. His father was a farmer and his mother a teacher. He studied University College of the West Indies and London School of Economics. 

Patterson is also a lawyer by training. He became an active member of the People's National Party in the 1950s, nominated to the Senate when he was 32 and joined the House of Representatives in 1970. During 1972-80 he served in a number of portfolios, including minister of finance and deputy prime minister.

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Paul Bogle, commemorated in song by Bob Marley, was born a free man circa 1822 in the parish of St Thomas, during the height of Jamaican slavery. He was an ordained Baptist deacon who sought reforms on behalf of the black poor, believing that better governmental polices could improve social and economic conditions.

On 11 October 1865 Bogle organized a peaceful march that turned violent -- later called the Morant Bay Rebellion. It resulted in the execution of over five hundred persons and harsh punishment for countless others, including Bogle, who was hanged on October 24, 1865.

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African Revolutions

       By  Mukoma wa Ngugi

Her womb pressed against the desert to bear the parasite

that eats her insides like termites drill into dry wood. 

He is born into an empty bowl, fist choking umbilical cord. 

She dies sighing, child son at last.  He couldn't have known,


instinct told him - always raise your arm in defense of your

own -Strike! Strike until they are all dead! Egg shells

in your hands milk bottle held between your toes,

you have been anointed twice, you strong enough to kill


at birth and survive.  You will want to name the world

after yourself but you will have no name- a collage of dead

roots, tongues and other things.  You will point your sword

to the center of the earth, duel the world to split into perfect


mirrors after your imperfect  mutations but you will be

too weak having latched your self onto too many streams

straddling too many continents, pulling patches of a self

as one does fruits from an from an orchard, building a home


of planks with many faces. How does one look into a mirror

with a face that washes clean every rainy season? 

He has an identity for every occasion - here he is Lenin

 there Jesus and yesterday Marx - inflexible truths inherited


without roots.  To be nothing to remain nothing, to kill

at birth - such love can only drink from our wrists.  We

storming from our past to Jo'Burg eating wisdom of others

building homes made of our grandparent's bones.  We


gathering momentum that eats out of our earth, We standing

pens and bullets hurled at you, your enemies.  Comrade, there

are many ways to die. A dog dies never having known

why it lived but a free death belongs to a life lived in roots,


roots not afraid of growing where they stand, roots tapped all over

the earth. Comrade, for a tree to grow, it must first own its earth.

Source: Zeleza

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The Slave Ship

By Marcus Rediker

John Henrik Clarke—A Great and Mighty Walk

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Wild Women Don’t Have the Blues

                                                         By Ida Cox

I hear these women raving 'bout their monkey men
About their fighting husbands and their no good friends
These poor women sit around all day and moan
Wondering why their wandering papas don't come home
But wild women don't worry, wild women don't have the blues.

Now when you've got a man, don't ever be on the square
'Cause if you do he'll have a woman everywhere
I never was known to treat no one man right
I keep 'em working hard both day and night
because wild women don't worry, wild women don't have no blues.

I've got a disposition and a way of my own
When my man starts kicking I let him find another home
I get full of good liquor, walk the streets all night
Go home and put my man out if he don't act right
Wild women don't worry, wild women don't have no blues

You never get nothing by being an angel child
You better change your ways and get real wild
I wanna tell you something, I wouldn't tell you no lie
Wild women are the only kind that ever get by
Wild women don't worry, wild women don't have no blues.

 Born Ida Prather,25 February 1896 in Toccoa, Habersham County, Georgia, United States. Died 10 November 1967 (aged 71) Genres Jazz, Blues Instruments Vocalist.

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Hunger for a Black President  / Introduction I Write What I Like

Biko Biosketch   Biko Speaks on Africans

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Fourth World Essays

Afro-America & The Fourth World 

The Black Middle Class & a Political Party of the Poor  (essay)

Dark Child of the Fourth World  

The Fourth World and the Marxists

The Fourth World: In the Belly of the Beast

New Orleans: The American Nightmare

On the Fourth World: Black Power, Black Panthers, and White Allies

Why I Support the Latino Demonstrators


Other Fourth World Essays

African America A Fourth World  (Waldron H. Giles)

Dark Child of the Fourth World Reaches Out   (Dennis Leroy Moore)

Fourth World Introduction (M.P. Parameswaran)

 Fourth World: Marxist, Gandhian, Environmentalist  (M.P. Parameswaran)

The Fourth World Multiculturalism (Rose Ure Mezu)

Fourth World Programme M.P. Parameswaran)

Neo-Liberalism Dictatorship of the Market  M.P. Parameswaran)

The Rise and Fall of the Socialist World  M.P. Parameswaran)

*   *   *   *   *'s 25 Best Selling Books



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#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

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#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
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#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

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#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

*   *   *   *   *

Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America

By Melissa V. Harris-Perry

According to the author, this society has historically exerted considerable pressure on black females to fit into one of a handful of stereotypes, primarily, the Mammy, the Matriarch or the Jezebel.  The selfless Mammy’s behavior is marked by a slavish devotion to white folks’ domestic concerns, often at the expense of those of her own family’s needs. By contrast, the relatively-hedonistic Jezebel is a sexually-insatiable temptress. And the Matriarch is generally thought of as an emasculating figure who denigrates black men, ala the characters Sapphire and Aunt Esther on the television shows Amos and Andy and Sanford and Son, respectively.     

Professor Perry points out how the propagation of these harmful myths have served the mainstream culture well. For instance, the Mammy suggests that it is almost second nature for black females to feel a maternal instinct towards Caucasian babies.

As for the source of the Jezebel, black women had no control over their own bodies during slavery given that they were being auctioned off and bred to maximize profits. Nonetheless, it was in the interest of plantation owners to propagate the lie that sisters were sluts inclined to mate indiscriminately.

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Sex at the Margins

Migration, Labour Markets and the Rescue Industry

By Laura María Agustín

This book explodes several myths: that selling sex is completely different from any other kind of work, that migrants who sell sex are passive victims and that the multitude of people out to save them are without self-interest. Laura Agustín makes a passionate case against these stereotypes, arguing that the label 'trafficked' does not accurately describe migrants' lives and that the 'rescue industry' serves to disempower them. Based on extensive research amongst both migrants who sell sex and social helpers, Sex at the Margins provides a radically different analysis. Frequently, says Agustin, migrants make rational choices to travel and work in the sex industry, and although they are treated like a marginalised group they form part of the dynamic global economy. Both powerful and controversial, this book is essential reading for all those who want to understand the increasingly important relationship between sex markets, migration and the desire for social justice. "Sex at the Margins rips apart distinctions between migrants, service work and sexual labour and reveals the utter complexity of the contemporary sex industry. This book is set to be a trailblazer in the study of sexuality."—Lisa Adkins, University of London

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

Browse all issues

1950        1960        1965        1970        1975        1980        1985        1990        1995        2000 ____ 2005        


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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery / George Jackson  / Hurricane Carter

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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