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 Machado's poetry and fiction show an indifference to enslaved blacks and is lacking

in black themes. Some suggest however that more investigation and analysis into

Machado de Assis' identity as an Afro Brazilian writer would be illuminating.



 The Sons & Daughters of Washerwomen

Compiled by Rudolph Lewis


Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (1839-1908), Brazilian novelist, was the son of a mulatto painter and an Azorean washerwoman. Born in Rio de Janeiro and educated by a priest, Machado de Assis became one of Brazil's most famous novelist. He was familiar with the works of Swift, Sterne, and Leopradi. He is started his career first as a typesetter, a proofreader, and finally a journalist. her worked laeter as an official of Brazil's Agricultural department.

Machado de Assis' writings include poetry, theater, chronicles, short stories and novel. His trilogy Memorias Postumas de Bras Cubas (1881), Quincas Borbas (1892), and Dom Casmurro (1900) have received considered emphasis of critical studies and public interest. His novels are distinguished by psychological insight and a profound awareness of social conditions; their objective attitude stands in sharp contrast to the prevalent romantic tendency of the time.

His major realistic novels  Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas (1881, tr. Epitaph of a Small Winner, 1952, The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas, 1998), Quincas Borba (1891, tr. Philosopher or Dog?, 1954, 1998), and Dom Casmurro (1900, tr. 1953, 1998) are still in publication and have been translated.  His pessimistic view of life and criticism of Brazil's high bourgeoisie is impelled by irony.

Machado's poetry and fiction show an indifference to enslaved blacks and is lacking in black themes. Some suggest however that more investigation and analysis into Machado de Assis' identity as an Afro Brazilian writer would be illuminating.


The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, translated from the Portuguese by Gregory Rabassa Oxford University Press, 219 pp., $25.00; $12.95 (paper)

Quincas Borba by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, translated from the Portuguese by Gregory Rabassa Oxford University Press, 290 pp., $25.00; $13.95 (paper)

Dom Casmurro by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, translated from the Portuguese by John Gledson Oxford University Press, 258 pp., $25.00; $12.95 (paper)

Esau and Jacob by Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, translated from the Portuguese by Elizabeth Lowe Oxford University Press, 276 pp., $35.00; $16.95 (paper)

A Master on the Periphery of Capitalism: Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis by Roberto Schwarz, translated from the Portuguese and with an introduction by John Gledson Duke University Press, 194 pp., $54.95; $18.95 (paper)

Machado de Assis: Reflections on a Brazilian Master Writer edited by Richard Graham University of Texas Press, 134 pp., $25.00; $11.95 (paper)

Source: The New York Review of Books July 18, 2002. Review "Master Among the Ruins" By Michael Wood

posted 22 June 2008 

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Actress, Dancer, Freedom Fighter

Josephine Baker (1906-1975)

Catholic Priest and saint 

St. Martin de Porres (1579-1339)

Corporate Executive & Arts Supporter

A'Lelia McWilliams Walker (1885-1931)

Publisher & Business Executive

John H. Johnson (b. 1918)

Pianist and Composer of Ragtime

Eubie Blake ( 1883-1982)

Lawrence T. Carter, Eubie Blake: Keys of Memory (1979); Al Rose, Eubie Blake (1979).

First African-American Professional Poet 

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906) /

Baseball Pitcher

Leroy Robert ("Satchel") Paige (1906-1982)

Leroy Satchel Page, et al. M  Maybe I'll Pitch Forever: A Great Baseball Player Tells the Hilarious Story Behind the Legend (1962; 1993).

Source: A Look at the Negro Leagues

Lawyer & Social Critic

Frederick McGhee (1861-1912)

Nelson, Paul D. Frederick McGhee: A Life on the Color Line, 1861-1912. Feb. 2002. 261p. illus. index.

Read also: Radicalism in the South Since Reconstruction  / Booker T. Wshington Papers Vol.14l  /  Booker T. Washington Papers Vol.8

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Historian, Lecturer, Educator

The popular and beloved  John Henrik Clarke (1915-1998)  was born January 1 in Union Springs, Alabama and died July 16 in New York City. His mother, Willie Ella Mays Clark, was a washerwoman who did laundry for $3 a week. His father was a sharecropper. As a youngster Clark caddied for Dwight Eisenhower and Omar Bradley. 

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Audio: My Story, My Song (Featuring blues guitarist Walter Wolfman Washington)

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Slavery’s Constitution: From Revolution to Ratification (2009)

By David Waldstreicher

Taking on decades of received wisdom, David Waldstreicher has written the first book to recognize slavery’s place at the heart of the U.S. Constitution. Famously, the Constitution never mentions slavery. And yet, of its eighty-four clauses, six were directly concerned with slaves and the interests of their owners. Five other clauses had implications for slavery that were considered and debated by the delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention and the citizens of the states during ratification. This “peculiar institution” was not a moral blind spot for America’s otherwise enlightened framers, nor was it the expression of a mere economic interest. Slavery was as important to the making of the Constitution as the Constitution was to the survival of slavery.By tracing slavery from before the revolution, through the Constitution’s framing, and into the public debate that followed, Waldstreicher rigorously shows that slavery was not only actively discussed behind the closed and locked doors of the Constitutional Convention, but that it was also deftly woven into the Constitution itself.

For one thing, slavery was central to the American economy, and since the document set the stage for a national economy, the Constitution could not avoid having implications for slavery. Even more, since the government defined sovereignty over individuals, as well as property in them, discussion of sovereignty led directly to debate over slavery’s place in the new republic.

Finding meaning in silences that have long been ignored, Slavery’s Constitution is a vital and sorely needed contribution to the conversation about the origins, impact, and meaning of our nation’s founding document.

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#1 - Justify My Thug by Wahida Clark
#2 - Flyy Girl by Omar Tyree
#3 - Head Bangers: An APF Sexcapade by Zane
#4 - Life Is Short But Wide by J. California Cooper
#5 - Stackin' Paper 2 Genesis' Payback by Joy King
#6 - Thug Lovin' (Thug 4) by Wahida Clark
#7 - When I Get Where I'm Going by Cheryl Robinson
#8 - Casting the First Stone by Kimberla Lawson Roby
#9 - The Sex Chronicles: Shattering the Myth by Zane

#10 - Covenant: A Thriller  by Brandon Massey

#11 - Diary Of A Street Diva  by Ashley and JaQuavis

#12 - Don't Ever Tell  by Brandon Massey

#13 - For colored girls who have considered suicide  by Ntozake Shange

#14 - For the Love of Money : A Novel by Omar Tyree

#15 - Homemade Loves  by J. California Cooper

#16 - The Future Has a Past: Stories by J. California Cooper

#17 - Player Haters by Carl Weber

#18 - Purple Panties: An Anthology by Sidney Molare

#19 - Stackin' Paper by Joy King

#20 - Children of the Street: An Inspector Darko Dawson Mystery by Kwei Quartey

#21 - The Upper Room by Mary Monroe

#22 – Thug Matrimony  by Wahida Clark

#23 - Thugs And The Women Who Love Them by Wahida Clark

#24 - Married Men by Carl Weber

#25 - I Dreamt I Was in Heaven - The Rampage of the Rufus Buck Gang by Leonce Gaiter


#1 - Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable
#2 - Confessions of a Video Vixen by Karrine Steffans
#3 - Dear G-Spot: Straight Talk About Sex and Love by Zane
#4 - Letters to a Young Brother: MANifest Your Destiny by Hill Harper
#5 - Peace from Broken Pieces: How to Get Through What You're Going Through by Iyanla Vanzant
#6 - Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey by Marcus Garvey
#7 - The Ebony Cookbook: A Date with a Dish by Freda DeKnight
#8 - The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors by Frances Cress Welsing
#9 - The Mis-Education of the Negro by Carter Godwin Woodson

#10 - John Henrik Clarke and the Power of Africana History  by Ahati N. N. Toure

#11 - Fail Up: 20 Lessons on Building Success from Failure by Tavis Smiley

#12 -The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

#13 - The Black Male Handbook: A Blueprint for Life by Kevin Powell

#14 - The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates by Wes Moore

#15 - Why Men Fear Marriage: The Surprising Truth Behind Why So Many Men Can't Commit  by RM Johnson

#16 - Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the Making of a Black American Millionaire by Carol Jenkins

#17 - Brainwashed: Challenging the Myth of Black Inferiority by Tom Burrell

#18 - A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose by Eckhart Tolle

#19 - John Oliver Killens: A Life of Black Literary Activism by Keith Gilyard

#20 - Alain L. Locke: The Biography of a Philosopher by Leonard Harris

#21 - Age Ain't Nothing but a Number: Black Women Explore Midlife by Carleen Brice

#22 - 2012 Guide to Literary Agents by Chuck Sambuchino
#23 - Chicken Soup for the Prisoner's Soul by Tom Lagana
#24 - 101 Things Every Boy/Young Man of Color Should Know by LaMarr Darnell Shields

#25 - Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class  by Lisa B. Thompson

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A Matter of Justice

Eisenhower and the Beginning of the Civil Rights Revolution

By David. A. Nichols

David A. Nichols  takes us inside the Oval Office to look over Ike's shoulder as he worked behind the scenes, prior to Brown, to desegregate the District of Columbia and complete the desegregation of the armed forces. We watch as Eisenhower, assisted by his close collaborator, Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr., sifted through candidates for federal judgeships and appointed five pro-civil rights justices to the Supreme Court and progressive judges to lower courts. We witness Eisenhower crafting civil rights legislation, deftly building a congressional coalition that passed the first civil rights act in eighty-two years, and maneuvering to avoid a showdown with Orval Faubus, the governor of Arkansas, over desegregation of Little Rock's Central High. Nichols demonstrates that Eisenhower, though he was a product of his time and its backward racial attitudes, was actually more progressive on civil rights in the 1950s than his predecessor, Harry Truman, and his successors, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. . . .  In fact, Eisenhower's actions laid the legal and political groundwork for the more familiar breakthroughs in civil rights achieved in the 1960s.

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The Gardens of Democracy: A New American Story

of Citizenship, the Economy, and the Role of Government

By Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer

American democracy is informed by the 18th century’s most cutting edge thinking on society, economics, and government. We’ve learned some things in the intervening 230 years about self interest, social behaviors, and how the world works. Now, authors Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer argue that some fundamental assumptions about citizenship, society, economics, and government need updating. For many years the dominant metaphor for understanding markets and government has been the machine. Liu and Hanauer view democracy not as a machine, but as a garden. A successful garden functions according to the inexorable tendencies of nature, but it also requires goals, regular tending, and an understanding of connected ecosystems. The latest ideas from science, social science, and economics—the cutting-edge ideas of today—generate these simple but revolutionary ideas: (The economy is not an efficient machine. It’s an effective garden that need tending. Freedom is responsibility. Government should be about the big what and the little how. True self interest is mutual interest.

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The White Masters of the World

From The World and Africa, 1965

By W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois’ Arraignment and Indictment of White Civilization (Fletcher)

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Ancient African Nations

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Negro Digest / Black World

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The Death of Emmett Till by Bob Dylan  The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll  Only a Pawn in Their Game

Rev. Jesse Lee Peterson Thanks America for Slavery

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The Journal of Negro History issues at Project Gutenberg

The Haitian Declaration of Independence 1804  / January 1, 1804 -- The Founding of Haiti 

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update 13 May 2012




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Related files: Difference Between Black Brazil and Black U.S.   religion and colonial Brazil   Black Consciousness in Brazil  Fidel Castro May Day Speech 2007   Martin de Porres